Pakistan is one of the countries confronted with unstable political situations and lacking political comments towards water and sanitation issues. Concept of wastewater treatment and recycling is not addressed properly in the country. Many of the public and private drainage schemes remain un-actualised while existing ones are in bad shape. Inadequate drainage facilities in most parts of the country are pre-dominant cause of the contamination fresh water resources available in any form. Because the natural resource is contaminated when drainage water, leaking from broken or damage pipelines, mixes with it.
Unavailability of adequate water for agriculture has compelled farmers to resort to using the untreated wastewater, which has emerged as a grave threat to the health of those, who consume it. There are concomitant environmental risks associated with untreated wastewater, such as transport of harmful contaminants in soils, contamination of ground and sub-soil water, degradation of soil quality. Wide range of pathogenic microorganisms, bacterias, viruses, protozoans and parasite worms that are transmitted through the consumption of vegetables cultivated with wastewater add more to greenhouse gas emissions, and thereby cause carbon footprints.
Small municipals committees and citizen community boards were evolved afterwards. Many drainage schemes developed in country since then are generating millions of gallon of untreated wastewater everyday, which has been tainting shrinking fresh water resources of the country.
There is a dire need to address this issue. Biological wastewater treatment technology can be employed to tackle the wastewater issue. Besides, waters risks can be minimised through promotion of small-scale sewage treatment and wastewater reuse systems in different parts of country, through Constructed Wetlands. These artificial wetlands can be of great help in tackling the depressing water scenario that is emerging
Biological Wastewater Treatment through Constructed Wetland